Methodology

Style Guidelines

Please observe the style guidelines below, which follow Oxford University Press’s New Hart's Rules and the Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. Please ensure that the style of the manuscript is consistent and accurate throughout. References (Humanities) Use the New Hart’s Rules style of footnotes and bibliography. The style should be uniform throughout the work. The bibliography should be alphabetized by author last name and, for multiple works by one author, by title. Works with no author should be alphabetized by the first word (after the definite or indefinite article). Examples of entries in a bibliography: Book Cary, George, The Medieval Alexander (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956). Book with one or more authors/editors Taberner, Stuart, ed., Distorted Reflections (Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1998). ––––, and Frank Finlay, eds, Recasting German Identity: Culture, Politics and Literature in the Berlin Republic (Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2003). Chapter in a book Shearman, John, ‘The Vatican Stanze: Functions and Decoration’, in George Holmes, ed., Art and Politics in Renaissance Italy (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), 185–240. Article in a journal Downing, Taylor, and Andrew Johnston, ‘The Spitfire Legend’, History Today 50/9 (2000), 19–25. Newspaper article Walser, Martin, ‘Teufel von Auschwitz sind eher arme Teufel’, Abendpost (14 March 1965). Online journal article ‘University Performance, 2001 League Tables’, Times Higher Education Supplement <http://www.thesis.co.uk/main.asp> accessed 5 June 2001. Footnotes In the footnotes, the first mention of a reference should appear as above, but with the author’s first name first. Subsequent references can simply include the author’s name, title and page reference: 1 George Cary, The Medieval Alexander (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1956), 246. 2 Cary, The Medieval Alexander, 132. References (Social Sciences) Use the Harvard style of author–date citations and bibliography, as explained in the New Hart’s Rules. The style should be uniform throughout the work. The bibliography should be alphabetized by author last name and multiple works by one author should be organized chronologically. If more than one work by the same author has the same date, add ‘a’ and ‘b’ after the dates and organize them alphabetically by title (see below). If you are using a different reference style than this, please alert your editor to the specific style guide you are using. Examples of entries in a bibliography: Book Balassa, B. (1961). The Theory of Economic Integration. London: Allen and Unwin. Book with one or more authors/editors Duncan, G. J., and Brooks-Gunn, J. (eds) (1997). Consequences of Growing Up Poor. New York: Russell Sage Foundation. Chapter in a book Magarey, M. E. (1988). ‘Examination of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine’. In R. Grant (ed.), Physical Therapy of the Cervical and Thoracic Spine, pp. 81–109. San Diego, CA: Harcourt. Article in a journal Jessop, B. (1995a). ‘Regional Economic Blocs’, American Behavioral Scientist, 38 (5), 674–715. –––– (1995b). ‘Regulation Approach, Governance and Post-Fordism’, Economy and Society, 24 (3), 307–33. Newspaper article Cumming, F. (1999). ‘Tax-Free Savings Push’, Sunday Mail, 4 April, p. 1. Online journal article Boughton, J. M. (2002). ‘The Bretton Woods Proposal: An In-depth Look’, Political Science Quarterly, 42 (6) <http://www.pol.upenn/articles> accessed 12 June 2005. Citations In-text citations should use the author–date style and be inserted into text prior to punctuation. In indented block quotes, however, the author–date citation follows end punctuation. The page number may be included after a colon, if necessary: For years, most textbooks referred to the five stages of economic integration (Jessop 1995b). According to Higgins, preventative medicine is ‘cost effective’ (2005: 56), but not efficient. Berkley (2009: 43) argued that ‘[g]lobal climate change has caused billions of pounds of damage.’ Abbreviations, Contractions and Acronyms Use full points:
  • If an abbreviation does not end with the final letter of the word: ed., vol., no., Rev.
  • After initials in a name: R. A. Butler (and leave a space between initials)
Do not use full points:
  • If a contraction ends with the final letter of the word: Dr, Mr, Mrs, St, eds, edn
  • In metric units of measurement: cm, kg
  • In acronyms, such as initials of organizations or associations: RAC, BBC, USA
Capitalization Use capital letters:
  • For proper names; proper names of institutions, movements or organizations; words derived from proper names (Dantesque, Latinize); prefixes and titles (President Barack Obama)
  • For recognized geographical names (Northern Ireland)
  • For proper names of periods or natural phenomena
  • For historical eras and events (the Reformation); trade names (Levi’s)
  • For titles of works of literature in English
Do not use capital letters:
  • For descriptions of geographical regions (northern England)
  • For political theories (socialism, communism, fascism, the left, the right)
Punctuation Dashes: Use an ‘en’ rule with a space on either side – to be typed thus. Ellipses: Use three dots with spaces on either side ... even if a sentence ends or starts with one. Hyphens: Maintain consistency throughout the manuscript for all key terms.

Use hyphens for compound nouns (make-up), adjectival phrases (middle-class neighbourhoods), between repeated vowels (co-operate)

Do not use hyphens for established compound nouns (soundtrack, breakdown), between an adverb and adjective if the adverb ends in ‘ly’ (widely known), between two vowels that don’t clash (reintroduce), in words with the ‘re-‘ prefix that don’t clash (rewrite, rethink)

Commas: Do not use serial commas in lists: We bought apples, oranges and pears. Numbers Use figures:
  • For years: 1984, 1950s (not fifties)
  • For dates: 25 June 1983 (not 25th of June, June 25)
  • For percentages: 25 per cent (Note: with ‘per cent’ as two words)
  • For measurements: 8km, 15 hectares, 16mm, 35mm (closed up as shown)
  • For numbers 100 and over: 400, 7.8 million (Note: use commas in numbers of four digits or more, as in 2,000 and 45,000)
  • For numbers in a series: Table 1, Chapter 4
Do not use figures:
  • For numbers less than 100: twenty-five people
  • For centuries: nineteenth century (not 19th century) and nineteenth-century history
Spans of numbers:
  • Use the fewest number of numerals: pp. 23–4, 1984–5
  • In the teens, the ‘1’ is always repeated: 12–13, 217–19
  • In titles and headings, put numbers in full: 1931–1993
Quotations Use single quotation marks. Place the punctuation after the quotation mark if it is not part of the original quote. For quotes inside of quotes, use double quotation marks. Use square brackets for an editor’s interpolation (‘in many respects [hers is an] exemplary biography’). For quotations in prose that exceed five lines, indent the entire quote and do not use quotation marks. Italics Use italics:
  • For names of ships, film and play titles, works of art, long poems, newspapers (Note: only The Times, The Guardian and The Economist have 'The' as part of title), paintings, books, magazines, journals, TV programme names
  • For foreign words and phrases not in common use (see New Hart’s Rules)
  • For emphasis (do not use bold or underlining)
  • For key terms or coined words
Do not use italics:
  • For poem, essay and short story titles; instead use roman type and single quotation marks
  • Foreign words in common usage (rendezvous, regime, elite; Note: no accents)